Pascal's Triangle (or perhaps Yang Hui's Triangle)?
Compare Yang Hui's diagram (1303) below to the Pascal Triangle.
_Yang Hui triangle (Pascal's triangle) using rod numerals, as depicted in a publication of Zhu Shijie in 1303 AD (from Wikipedia).
A jazzy version
A few other patterns to be found in Pascal's Triangle
Powers of Two 
Below is a version of Pascal's Triangle from Japanese in the year 1781. Color in Pascal's Triangle here with multiples and see what happens!
Finding the Fibonacci Numbers from Pascal's Triangle

